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Amnes­ty Inter­na­tio­nal Sym­po­si­um

Human rights vio­la­ti­ons against peop­le with men­tal ill­ness, epi­le­psy and disa­bi­li­ty – Amnes­ty International’s Action Net­work for Health Pro­fes­si­ons orga­ni­zed an inter­na­tio­nal sym­po­si­um in Kas­sel

On 16.02.2019 a sym­po­si­um on human rights vio­la­ti­ons against peop­le with men­tal ill­ness, epi­le­psy and men­tal disa­bi­li­ty took place in the Gieß­haus of the Uni­ver­si­ty of Kas­sel. The con­fe­rence was orga­ni­zed by Akti­ons­netz Heil­be­ru­fe, finan­ced by Amnes­ty Inter­na­tio­nal and simul­ta­ne­ous­ly trans­la­ted into two lan­guages (Eng­lish and Ger­man). Mem­bers of Amnes­ty Inter­na­tio­nal, rep­re­sen­ta­ti­ves of NGOs and other inte­rested par­ties were pre­sent, many from the­ra­peu­tic pro­fes­si­ons.

La mala­die du demon — disea­se of demons

On the evening befo­re the con­fe­rence, direc­tor Lilith Kug­ler took the audi­ence to Bur­ki­na Faso with her award-win­ning debut work and pre­sen­ted the situa­ti­on of peop­le with men­tal or epi­lep­tic disea­ses. Peop­le suf­fe­ring from psy­cho­sis are hid­den in sheds for their own pro­tec­tion and that of the com­mu­ni­ty and are tied to trees the­re or in natu­re. In some cases, pray­er camps are used which are loca­ted far out­si­de the com­mu­ni­ty, are only known in the imme­dia­te vicini­ty and are not sub­ject to any con­trols. The­re they are pro­vi­ded with food by their rela­ti­ves or, if they do not visit them, by mem­bers of the camp. The “tre­at­ment” usual­ly takes place exclu­si­ve­ly with pray­ers in order to expel the evil spi­rits. The­re is no psych­iatric sup­ply of medi­ca­ti­on. The sick often spend years under a tree and the film shows an examp­le of a per­son dig­ging deeper and deeper into the earth and others tal­king to them­sel­ves or even silen­cing com­ple­te­ly.  Sen­si­tively and wit­hout any pathos, Lilith Kug­ler, accom­pa­nied by a parish priest, Guitan­ga Tank­pa­ri, pres­ents the situa­ti­on and the back­ground for the expe­ri­ence and action of the local peop­le.  The pas­tor visits some pati­ents and tri­es to free them from their chains and to find a place for them in their com­mu­nities again. The Chris­ti­an pas­tor tri­es to com­bi­ne the tra­di­tio­nal cul­tu­re with human accom­p­ani­ment and the achie­ve­ments of medi­ci­ne in order to bring peop­le back to com­mu­ni­ty and reco­very. Medi­cal care is pro­vi­ded by a psych­iatric nur­se, Timo­thée Tinda­no, who tra­vels from far away and has an out­pa­ti­ent con­sul­ta­ti­on two days a month. The sup­ply of medi­ca­ti­on is a major pro­blem.

Also affec­ted per­sons and the con­se­quen­ces of the ill­ness for them and their fami­lies are pre­sen­ted. The situa­ti­on of the hel­pers in the local aid pro­ject is also addres­sed.  The disea­ses are inter­pre­ted in the local tra­di­ti­on as an expres­si­on of obses­si­on, which leads to the fact that the demons must be dri­ven out or tamed. The demons can also jump over to other peop­le and so the hel­pers are some­ti­mes also suspec­ted of being infec­ted by the demons. But the film also shows how ele­men­ta­ry care can be deve­lo­ped with simp­le means. This care is cur­r­ent­ly being expan­ded with the help of two Ger­man NGOs.

The direc­tor was pre­sent during the fol­lo­wing dis­cus­sion and ans­we­red the nume­rous ques­ti­ons. Mean­while she is back in Bur­ki­na Faso, sho­wing her film the­re — also to the peop­le who par­ti­ci­pa­te in the film — and she and we are loo­king for­ward to the reso­nan­ce the­re. The film can be requested for scree­nings in cine­mas and events in order to reach a broa­der public for the topic in other coun­tries as well.

Amnes­ty International’s Posi­ti­on on Men­tal Health and Human Rights. Star­ting point and ques­ti­ons

Micha­el Hup­pertz, psych­ia­trist, psy­cho­the­ra­pist, socio­lo­gist and mem­ber of the Akti­ons­netz Heil­be­ru­fe, intro­du­ced in his intro­duc­to­ry lec­tu­re the topic of long hid­den human rights vio­la­ti­ons against peop­le with men­tal and epi­lep­tic disea­ses in coun­tries wit­hout rele­vant psych­iatric care. He spo­ke from a human rights per­spec­tive about the pro­blems that ari­se on the way to impro­ving their situa­ti­on. If in the past deca­des the­re was pro­test against abu­se of ment­al­ly ill peop­le, it was in con­nec­tion with cri­ti­cism of arbi­tra­ry and vio­lent tre­at­ment wit­hin psych­iatric insti­tu­ti­ons. But many more peop­le out­si­de psych­iatric insti­tu­ti­ons than wit­hin them are depri­ved of their basic rights. This is sim­ply due to the fact that the­re are around 1.5 mil­li­on beds in psych­iatric insti­tu­ti­ons world­wi­de, inclu­ding homes, but at least 200 times as many severely ment­al­ly ill peop­le in poor coun­tries who have no access to psych­iatric tre­at­ment. It is only sin­ce about 10 years that the pro­blem, which has been known to experts for a long time, has been brought to the public by inves­ti­ga­ti­ve jour­na­lists. Human rights orga­ni­za­ti­ons, inclu­ding Amnes­ty Inter­na­tio­nal, have also paid litt­le atten­ti­on to the situa­ti­on of this lar­ge part of the popu­la­ti­on to this day. So it is also about an inclu­si­on of this group in the human rights move­ment. Using the deve­lop­ment of Amnes­ty Inter­na­tio­nal as an examp­le, he exp­lai­ned how the orga­ni­za­ti­on initi­al­ly devo­ted its­elf to poli­ti­cal pri­soners and civil and poli­ti­cal rights, and later on gene­ral­ly cam­pai­gned for the aboli­ti­on of tor­tu­re and the death penal­ty. In 2001, the man­da­te was exten­ded to the pro­tec­tion of all human rights. 

Some­ti­mes, but never com­pre­hen­si­ve­ly, the situa­ti­on of ment­al­ly ill and dis­ab­led peop­le was taken into account. Recent­ly, howe­ver, the issue seems to be gai­ning more atten­ti­on at the inter­na­tio­nal level, which has been pro­mo­ted by important inter­na­tio­nal con­ven­ti­ons. Various pro­blems have ari­sen with regard to coope­ra­ti­on with regio­nal and sta­te actors, the plau­si­bi­li­ty of the modern con­cept of human rights in rural regi­ons, the pos­si­bi­li­ties of NGOs to influ­ence inter­na­tio­nal nego­tia­ti­ons and natio­nal health poli­cy. Espe­ci­al­ly NGOs that are prac­ti­cal­ly active on the ground have to bear in mind that they do not con­tri­bu­te to the mista­kes of Wes­tern psych­ia­try being repeated in the deve­lop­ment of psych­iatric care in deve­lo­ping coun­tries. In par­ti­cu­lar, the estab­lish­ment of lar­ge, sepa­ra­te psych­iatric insti­tu­ti­ons should be rejec­ted becau­se it is inef­fi­ci­ent and expen­si­ve and becau­se such insti­tu­ti­ons are par­ti­cu­lar­ly vul­nera­ble to human rights vio­la­ti­ons under pre­ca­rious con­di­ti­ons.  In addi­ti­on, the­re is a dan­ger that the governments of the coun­tries con­cer­ned, which gene­ral­ly spend very litt­le or not­hing on men­tal health, will be relie­ved of respon­si­bi­li­ty for the issue of men­tal health. In the effi­ci­ent and afford­a­ble deve­lop­ment of psych­iatric care wit­hin gene­ral decen­tra­li­zed and out­pa­ti­ent health care, on the other hand, one can refer to the inter­na­tio­nal exper­ti­se of the WHO, for examp­le. At the end, Micha­el Hup­pertz for­mu­la­ted nume­rous ques­ti­ons for the par­ti­ci­pants of the con­fe­rence, the ans­wers to which could be important for a pos­si­ble future enga­ge­ment of Amnes­ty Inter­na­tio­nal.  

Glo­bal men­tal health and human rights — an over­view of the cur­rent situa­ti­on

Wolf­gang Krahl of the Inter­na­tio­nal Net­work for Deve­lop­ment Coope­ra­ti­on in the Field of Men­tal Health e.V., psych­ia­trist and foren­sic sci­en­tist, who has been active for deca­des in various emer­ging and deve­lo­ping coun­tries in rese­arch, edu­ca­ti­on and coope­ra­ti­on pro­jec­ts, impres­si­ve­ly demons­tra­ted, based on the Decla­ra­ti­on of Human Rights, that men­tal health has long been neglec­ted in the rea­li­za­ti­on of the­se human rights. Fami­lies, espe­ci­al­ly in poor coun­tries, are the only sup­por­ters of ment­al­ly ill peop­le who, for their own pro­tec­tion and that of others, resort to nume­rous human rights vio­la­ti­ons, for examp­le by chai­ning their rela­ti­ves to chains and locking them away. The best anti-Stig­ma­pro­gramm is a good tre­at­ment and reha­bi­li­ta­ti­on! It also takes the bur­den off the affec­ted fami­lies, relie­ves them for other tasks and activi­ties and is a con­cre­te deve­lop­ment aid. Accord­ing to the WHO’s cata­lo­gue of objec­tives, this inclu­des good initi­al care for ment­al­ly ill peop­le right into the local com­mu­nities, the pro­vi­si­on of psy­cho­tro­pic drugs, the trai­ning of men­tal health experts, who do not have to be psych­ia­trists, and then also edu­ca­tio­nal work and psy­choedu­ca­ti­on. This requi­res sta­te imple­men­ta­ti­on and net­wor­king of various sec­tors, moni­to­ring and fur­ther rese­arch. He poin­ted out that in Euro­pe, too, the deve­lop­ment of psych­ia­try was a long pro­cess that began in the 18th cen­tu­ry and led to the first libe­ra­ti­ons of the ment­al­ly ill from their shack­les. Wolf­gang Krahl also recal­led the most com­pre­hen­si­ve and orga­ni­zed human rights vio­la­ti­ons in Ger­ma­ny bet­ween 1933–1945. Wit­hin the frame­work of the T4 pro­gram, 200,000 sick peop­le were sys­te­ma­ti­cal­ly mur­de­red, many of them for­ci­b­ly ste­ri­li­zed, with the signi­fi­cant par­ti­ci­pa­ti­on of psych­ia­trists and nur­sing staff. 

Wolf­gang Krahl pre­sen­ted how much money sta­tes spend on psych­iatric care and how the gap bet­ween coun­tries with high and low per capi­ta inco­mes diver­ges. Low and lower midd­le inco­me coun­tries usual­ly spend less than 1% of their low health bud­gets, some­ti­mes not­hing at all, on the tre­at­ment of the­se disea­ses. As a result, bil­li­ons of peop­le would have no access to psych­iatric care. After infec­tious disea­ses and inju­ries, men­tal ill­nes­ses are the most com­mon disea­ses. He show­ed what drastic con­se­quen­ces this can have for tho­se affec­ted. As a rule, tra­di­tio­nal hea­lers are the first port of call for tho­se affec­ted and their fami­lies. Tra­di­tio­nal healing methods could also be some­ti­mes suc­cess­ful for mild forms of depres­si­on, depen­den­cy disea­ses and neu­ro­tic sym­ptoms. In the case of seve­re depres­si­on, schi­zo­phre­nia, bipo­lar psy­cho­ses and epi­le­psy, on the other hand, psych­iatric tre­at­ments, inclu­ding psy­cho­tro­pic drugs and anti­epi­lep­tic drugs, would have to be used not too late.

Men­tal health and human rights in Côte d’Ivoire

Natha­lie Koua­k­ou from Amnes­ty Inter­na­tio­nal Côte d’Ivoire spo­ke about the situa­ti­on in her coun­try, whe­re she has been cam­pai­gning for several years for the imple­men­ta­ti­on of human rights stan­dards in the health sys­tem. Espe­ci­al­ly ment­al­ly ill peop­le are impai­red in the per­cep­ti­on and defence of their rights and are the­re­fo­re par­ti­cu­lar­ly pre­desti­ned to beco­me vic­tims of human rights vio­la­ti­ons. Alt­hough the WHO defi­nes the right to men­tal health as a cen­tral com­po­nent of well-being, tho­se affec­ted by men­tal ill­ness, epi­le­psy or redu­ced intel­li­gence are still often stig­ma­tised, exclu­ded from edu­ca­ti­on, poli­ti­cal deba­tes, elec­tions, star­ting a fami­ly, etc. The WHO also defi­nes the right to men­tal health as a cen­tral ele­ment of well-being.  In Côte d’Ivoire, the who­le issue of the life situa­ti­on of the ment­al­ly ill is mar­gi­na­li­sed.

Natha­lie Koua­k­ou pre­sen­ted the UN Con­ven­ti­on on the Rights of Per­sons with Disa­bi­li­ties and the Men­tal Health Action Plan, which call for soci­al impro­ve­ments for peop­le affec­ted bey­ond medi­cal tre­at­ment and aim to break down bar­ri­ers to inte­gra­ti­on. They want to draw the atten­ti­on of tho­se respon­si­ble and decisi­on-makers, encou­ra­ge them and point out ways in which they can help to imple­ment appro­pria­te gui­de­li­nes and pro­tect and gua­ran­tee the rights of tho­se affec­ted. In par­ti­cu­lar, howe­ver, the Con­ven­ti­on aims at the housing, living and tre­at­ment situa­ti­on, the stan­dards of which must meet today’s increa­sed know­ledge. A dif­fe­rent pic­tu­re of men­tal ill­ness should also be brought into socie­ty, for examp­le through impro­ved edu­ca­ti­on of the popu­la­ti­on. Degra­ding tre­at­ment and accom­mo­da­ti­on should also be punis­hed, as it should be pos­si­ble for tho­se affec­ted to com­p­lain about it. The government should pro­vi­de instru­ments to streng­t­hen pati­ents and their fami­lies, for examp­le in the form of asso­cia­ti­ons and self-help groups. Lar­ge psych­iatric insti­tu­ti­ons in lar­ge cities should be repla­ced by psy­cho­so­ci­al and medi­cal care clo­ser to home. In order to gua­ran­tee all of this, government offices for coor­di­na­ti­on and plan­ning would have to be crea­ted in the admi­nis­tra­ti­on. The Afri­can Uni­on had also lar­ge­ly joi­ned the pos­tu­la­tes of the WHO, but the­re was still a lack of visi­bi­li­ty of the pro­blem in the coun­try and a lack of com­mit­ment on the part of the Minis­try of Health. The pre­ca­rious situa­ti­on of the lacking resour­ces on the one hand and the litt­le com­mit­ted approach to the imple­men­ta­ti­on of the gui­de­li­nes on the other hand pro­mo­tes the con­ti­nua­ti­on of the tra­di­tio­nal prac­tices of the reli­gious-cul­tu­ral under­stan­ding of men­tal impairments with the dan­ger of the con­ti­nued mistre­at­ment, dis­re­gard and exclu­si­on of the affec­ted per­sons. This also inclu­des sexu­al abu­se wit­hin the frame­work of magi­cal thin­king as well as kid­nap­pings and the remo­val of organs.  

Despi­te the other­wi­se dyna­mic pro­cess in the deve­lop­ment of the coun­try, the magi­cal thin­king of guilt, magic and obses­si­on pre­vails here. In addi­ti­on to the alrea­dy weak medi­cal care in the coun­try, which was still affec­ted by the mili­ta­ry coup of 1999, various cri­ses and the civil war of 2002–2011, the­re is an increa­sed inci­dence of trau­ma dis­or­der. Psych­iatric care is scar­ce, and only 25% of health distric­ts have any form of psych­iatric care at all. On the other hand, Côte d’Ivoire has a new con­sti­tu­ti­on in 2016 which sti­pu­la­tes that all peop­le with disa­bi­li­ties must be pro­tec­ted from discri­mi­na­ti­on and that no one must be dis­ad­van­ta­ged becau­se of their men­tal or phy­si­cal con­di­ti­on.

In her con­clu­ding demands, Natha­lie Koua­k­ou under­li­ned the need for fur­ther rese­arch into the epi­de­mio­lo­gy, socio­lo­gi­cal data and legal sta­tus of the disea­ses in ques­ti­on in Côte d’Ivoire, impro­ved acces­si­bi­li­ty of the initi­al con­tact points in the muni­ci­pa­li­ties, also for men­tal ill­nes­ses, for invest­ment in trai­ning for spe­cia­list staff, but also for vol­un­te­ers in the vil­la­ge struc­tures, in order to build up a good sup­port net­work and edu­ca­tio­nal work.

From West Afri­ca to Sou­the­ast Asia: Trans­forming access to men­tal health care through WHO Qua­li­ty Rights and CBM’s men­tal health work

Car­men Val­le works as a con­sul­tant for men­tal health pro­jec­ts of the Christof­fel-Blin­den-Mis­si­on (cbm), in par­ti­cu­lar with regard to human rights edu­ca­ti­on, in various coun­tries in Afri­ca and Asia. She fol­lo­wed her organization’s expe­ri­ence and solu­ti­on models. She descri­bed how it can be pos­si­ble to crea­te basic net­works on the ground, to sup­port decisi­on-makers and peop­le in the care of peop­le with disa­bi­li­ties. Cbm reli­es among other things on so-cal­led peer groups, i.e. on peop­le who are expe­ri­en­ced in life and enjoy the respect of the com­mu­ni­ty and at the same time are open-min­ded for the imple­men­ta­ti­on of soci­al psych­iatric care in the com­mu­nities and often have a prac­ti­cal the­ra­peu­tic effect. She impres­si­ve­ly pre­sen­ted a well thought-out con­cept at the various levels of how the coun­tries could con­ti­nue to main­tain and deve­lop the sys­tem inde­pendent­ly wit­hout the sup­port of NGOs. Men­tal health care and con­si­de­ra­ti­on of the situa­ti­on of ment­al­ly ill, stig­ma­ti­zed peop­le with epi­le­psy and men­tal impairment should be inte­gra­ted into the over­all con­cept of deve­lop­ment work, for examp­le in edu­ca­tio­nal pro­jec­ts in schools and kin­der­gar­tens. The idea of inclu­si­on can also be intro­du­ced at an ear­ly sta­ge here, as well as at parent and com­mu­ni­ty mee­tings. This also streng­t­hens awa­reness of the par­ti­cu­lar vul­nera­bi­li­ty of tho­se affec­ted to ass­ault and abu­se and thus soci­al con­trol, which can ser­ve as pro­tec­tion. The con­cept of their orga­ni­za­ti­on is to pro­vi­de emer­gen­cy aid in thres­hold and deve­lo­ping coun­tries, for examp­le after ear­th­quakes, tsu­na­mis, etc., in addi­ti­on to the so-cal­led basic needs, and to focus sepa­r­ate­ly on men­tal health and local work. World­wi­de, on-the-spot trai­ners are trai­ned in first aid for first aid after trau­ma­tiza­ti­on accord­ing to WHO gui­de­li­nes.

The situa­ti­on of trau­ma­ti­zed peop­le in Libe­ria

Susan­ne Gros­se, soci­al sci­en­tist at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Kas­sel, as hos­tess of the event in the Gieß­haus of the Uni­ver­si­ty of Kas­sel not only ensu­red a plea­sant con­fe­rence atmo­s­phe­re, but in view of her forth­co­m­ing rese­arch stay in Libe­ria she not only repor­ted on the simi­lar­ly dis­astrous situa­ti­on of tho­se affec­ted the­re with vivid film and pic­to­ri­al mate­ri­al, but also made it clear on the basis of the stan­dards of care in Ger­ma­ny that we our­sel­ves have not been far away from poor care for so long. The psych­iatric enqui­ries and visi­tor com­mis­si­ons had pro­vi­ded for more trans­pa­ren­cy and stan­dards, but nee­ded con­stant impro­ve­ment. It is pre­cise­ly the peop­le affec­ted who find it dif­fi­cult to stand up for their rights. In pro­jec­ts in Libe­ria, peop­le are trai­ned for psy­cho­so­ci­al sup­port, espe­ci­al­ly for the nume­rous trau­ma­ti­zed peop­le in the coun­try. Thousands of for­mer recrui­ted child sol­di­ers have now grown up and have fami­lies of their own, but often car­ry trau­ma sequel dis­or­ders with them — with serious con­se­quen­ces for them­sel­ves and socie­ty.

The prac­ti­cal signi­fi­can­ce of inter­na­tio­nal human rights con­ven­ti­ons for the deve­lop­ment of psych­iatric care 

Mar­gret Oster­feld, reti­red psych­ia­trist and com­mit­ted to Akti­on Psy­chisch Kran­ke e.V., was not only a com­mit­ted cri­tic at pre­vious lec­tures, but also spo­ke about her work at the UN Sub­com­mit­tee on the Pre­ven­ti­on of Tor­tu­re, in the frame­work of which teams regu­lar­ly visit care insti­tu­ti­ons in various coun­tries and draw up reports on the extent to which cor­re­spon­ding stan­dards of care are obser­ved or dis­re­gar­ded and impro­ved. The­se teams usual­ly have access to all men­tal health faci­li­ties and pre­pa­re reports on the human rights situa­ti­on in the­se faci­li­ties. If they do not get free access, they stop working. The reports are for­war­ded to the com­pe­tent aut­ho­ri­ties and pro­po­sals are made to impro­ve the situa­ti­on. A publi­ca­ti­on bey­ond that is aimed at, but the orga­ni­za­ti­on renoun­ces it, if the addres­sed governments do not agree, in order not to end­an­ger the fur­ther co-ope­ra­ti­on.

Dis­cus­sion on the podi­um and with the audi­ence

The lec­tures — mode­ra­ted by Mir­jam Ibold, psy­cho­lo­gist and mem­ber of the Action Net­work of Health Pro­fes­sio­nals — were accom­pa­nied by lively dis­cus­sions for which the­re was ple­nty of time. The con­clu­ding panel dis­cus­sion — mode­ra­ted by Gesi­ne Heet­derks, psych­ia­trist and neu­ro­lo­gist — focu­sed on the ques­ti­on of what the con­se­quen­ces would be for the pos­si­ble invol­ve­ment of Amnes­ty Inter­na­tio­nal. The­re was a con­sen­sus that a dual stra­te­gy would make sen­se for impro­ving the situa­ti­on of peop­le with men­tal ill­ness and epi­le­psy. On the one hand, a sustainab­le chan­ge in their situa­ti­on can only be achie­ved if appro­pria­te influ­ence is exer­ted on the government. The sta­tes con­cer­ned have signed various con­ven­ti­ons of human rights signi­fi­can­ce, inclu­ding the important Con­ven­ti­on on the Rights of Per­sons with Disa­bi­li­ties of 2008. They can and must be made awa­re that the situa­ti­on of the­se peop­le is a vio­la­ti­on of ele­men­ta­ry human rights. On the other hand, howe­ver, human rights vio­la­ti­ons such as chai­ning peop­le are gene­ral­ly not the result of sadistic moti­ves, but rather of a lack of alter­na­ti­ves and hel­pless­ness in dealing with the mys­te­rious disea­ses. The­re­fo­re, such a poli­ti­cal stra­te­gy can only be suc­cess­ful if it is accom­pa­nied by sui­ta­ble pilot pro­jec­ts demons­tra­ting that in poor coun­tries such as Bur­ki­na Faso, Côte d’Ivoire or Ethio­pia, medi­cal care for the­se peop­le is also pos­si­ble at afford­a­ble costs and can the­re­fo­re be incor­po­ra­ted into government health pro­grams. So it is not a ques­ti­on of pil­l­o­ry­ing governments, but of using such pilot pro­jec­ts to per­sua­de them to coope­ra­te, in their own inte­rest, becau­se in this way a fun­da­men­tal human rights pro­blem in their coun­tries can be tack­led and perhaps resol­ved.

It is a ques­ti­on of pro­mo­ting an encou­ra­ging and hel­pful approach to the­se peop­le through edu­ca­ti­on about men­tal ill­ness, epi­le­psy and men­tal disa­bi­li­ty and, above all, through real impro­ve­ments in the tre­at­ment and care of tho­se affec­ted. This infor­ma­ti­on and encou­ra­ge­ment should invol­ve tho­se affec­ted and their fami­lies, the health workers, but also the aut­ho­ri­ties and civil socie­ty. The mot­to “Don’t bla­me” should be taken into account as far as pos­si­ble. Comments should be face-saving and rea­listic for the respon­si­ble governments, so that fur­ther inves­ti­ga­ti­ons, deve­lop­ment reviews, new pro­po­sals etc. can be made in con­stant coope­ra­ti­on with the admi­nis­tra­ti­ons.

Gud­run Brün­ner